Influenza and Ebola are viruses capable of causing life threatening human diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Ebola virus is a viral hemorrhagic fever disease characterized by an initial non specific symptoms following by internal and external bleeding and death if not treated adequately. Both viruses are notorious for causing pandemics with loss of human life (1, 2). Continue reading
Biotechnicians increasingly rely on well-known methods and anxiety medications to decipher microbial conflicts while expanding various anxiety medications and measures to fight anxiety disorders. The members of the scientific community agreed that the accessibility of the amount of antibiotics gave trained physicians the ability to control bacterial infections. However, as opposed to rejoicing over the ability to combat hazardous microorganisms successfully, biotech professionals are learning to control microbes that build up resistance to an increasing amount of previously reliable antibiotics.
The fight revolves around the expertise and ability of well-trained genomics in addition to microbiological techniques. The capacity to sequence genomes and search for genes in order to produce clones encircling the genes for research; these encompass a key element of microbiology. Examination of genetic differences is vital for microbes, nucleotide polymorphisms in addition to chromosomal elements, which are able to pass on drug resistance on a microscopic level. Moreover, the opposite is also true. The method of handling microbes in a controlled laboratory environment is crucial in furthering work in the genomic field. Continue reading
Food colors are additives which occur naturally or produced synthetically to be used as coloring agents in drinks and foods. They are prepared in the form of liquids, gases and as well as powder forms, though many have also been prepared as pastes. The use of dyes and colors has been adopted in imparting colors to foods commercially and locally in domestic food preparations. However, widespread use of dyes in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications has raised questions about their safety levels . Continue reading
ADHD Genetic testing
To date, the cause of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is still unknown. However, it is theorized that both genetic and environmental factors play a crucial role. To find out if indeed genetic factor is one of the determinants in the causation of the disease, a group of scientists from Cardiff University School of Medicine and deCode Genetics in Iceland, among other research centers, implemented a case-control study wherein children were enrolled as participants and they were divided in two groups. One group was composed of 366 children proven to have ADHD, otherwise known as the case subjects, and the other group was composed of 1,047 children without the disease, known as the control subjects—thus giving birth to the term case-control study .
The study specifically looked at whether large deletions and duplications within the DNA, otherwise known as the copy number variants or CNVs, are more common in the case subjects than in the control subjects. If the answer is yes, then it is highly possible that the variants play a role in causing the condition, and thus, in turn, linking genetic factors in the causation. If the link is established, then the remaining job is to definitely and conclusively identify the genes responsible for it . Scientists believe that at least two genes are involved in the causation of ADHD . Continue reading
The dreaded disease which has gripped West Africa has already infected thousands of individuals and has resulted in 4,033 deaths as of October 10, 2014 according to WHO. Ebola is a virus which has a current kill rate of 50%, reaching as high as 90% in previous epidemics. It manifests after 2 to 21 days with non-specific symptoms of the usual fever, head-ache and sore throat. If left untreated, it is known to cause liver and kidney failure, internal and external bleeding and eventually, death. Although originating from forest animals, this disease can now be transmitted from human to human via direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes of bodily fluids of infected individuals. Continue reading
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric medical problem whose main clinical manifestations are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Many years ago, it was recognized in children, and it was popularly believed for so many years that its occurrence was confined to that age group. In late 1980s and 1990s, however, researchers demonstrated that it has been occurring, too, among adolescents and adults—with many of them undetected for several decades [1,3].
The prevalence of ADHD among children in the U.S. is approximately 9%, and this number holds true to other countries. More often than not, it is recognized among boys; however, it is also prevalent among girls, whose abnormal condition, most of the time, escaped medical detection. Among adults, approximately 4-5% of them worldwide have been suffering from the said medical problem but remained undetected and untreated. To date, there has been no known definitive cause of ADHD; however, research results show that genetics may play a crucial and vital role in the causation .
So far, much still remains to be desired for the treatment of ADHD. Hence, Alcobra Ltd., an Israeli pharmaceutical firm, took the initiative to manufacture a drug intended to treat ADHD. This drug is named Metadoxine Extended Release (MDX), and it is considered as the lead and primary drug of Alcobra, specifically highlighting and emphasizing the claim that MDX is free of the abuse potential that other treatments for ADHD have . Continue reading
The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widely described by the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) as a major cause of concern among children. The major manifestations of ADHD have been described in excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children, with the early etiological theories being similar to the current descriptions of ADHD. Since the nineteenth century, detailed studied focusing on the behaviors of hyperactive children with added knowledge on brain functions have resulted in better understanding of the inherent behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. Currently, most children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are identified based on their symptoms, with most of them being identified and treated in primary school.
Population studies have concluded that five percent of children across the globe elicit impaired attention levels, as well as hyperactivity. The studies have classified boys as suffering from ADHD as being approximately twice as frequently as girls and primary age children as being approximately twice as frequently as adolescents. The existence of ADHD symptoms is on a continuum in the general population, with the disorder being considered to a greater or lesser degree based on the identification, (e.g., parent or teacher), the perceived extent of functional impairment, the criteria used in diagnosing the condition, and the threshold chosen in defining the case under observation. Available literature indicates that developmentally inexcessive levels of inattention or overactivity and impulsive characteristics of ADHD are present among cases from an early age. However, among preschoolers with early signs of ADHD may also present with co-occurring oppositional noncompliant behaviors, temper tantrums and being overly aggressive that may overshadow symptoms of inattention and overactivity, consequently confounding the diagnosis.
According to Dr. Fairweather, a psychiatrist who treats this condition in adults, “Inattentiveness tends to be less obvious in adults and often goes unnoticed to the untrained eye. Unfortunately, many physicians and those in the medical community are not convinced that ADHD continues well into adulthood.”